Development and application of fountains in urban construction
Water is the core of life. Water is one of the most important factors for human survival. Water can not only meet the basic needs of people, but also improve people’s physical and mental comfort. Because of people’s dependence on water and proximity, Since the beginning of human activities, people have lived in the water. Since the development of ancient towns, people have continuously developed water landscaping functions, entertainment functions and environmental protection functions. Fountains are part of urban construction and garden landscaping. Products and works of cultural needs and spiritual needs.
Inquiring about the history of architecture and the history of gardens in ancient and modern China and abroad, many beautiful fountains have become the symbol of the city or architecture. These hand-picked masterpieces have been preserved to this day. They are the quintessence of beautifying the city and play a finishing touch in beautifying the city and beautifying the environment. Tao Ye and enlightened the descendants, laid the foundation for today’s fountain development.
First, the rapid development of urban construction has driven the development of the fountain industry.
In the country before the 1980s, the fountain was only a technical detail of the building water supply and drainage and garden landscape design. From design to product production, engineering installation did not form a scale. Just in the public buildings and parks such as exhibition halls, you can see some small and medium-sized fountains. The level of the products is simple and extensive. After the 1980s, with the restoration and development of the national economy and the improvement of people’s living standards, the urban construction and garden authorities of some cities have been in the process of urban construction and transformation, as well as the beautification of the environment and the creation of cultural atmosphere. The fountain has put forward new requirements. Some buildings, gardens, water conservancy design institutes, research institutes and colleges and universities have integrated traditional expertise such as civil structure, water supply and drainage, and electromechanical control, plus advanced MCUs at that time. The solenoid valve and DC motor speed control are controlled by variables, and a batch of fountains and water features are designed. A good social reflection and social benefits have been obtained. During this period, some fountain equipment professional processing factories and companies began to form and develop, which provided the strength for the professional development of the fountain and laid the foundation.
After the 1990s, the socialist market economy developed rapidly, and the speed of urban construction in the country accelerated. People also pursue high-quality cultural life and environmental beauty. The demand for the market has driven the development of the fountain industry. The fountain walks out of the park, the walls of the garden and the center of the square, and extends deep into people’s social activities. Many professional fountain manufacturers and professional companies emerged during this time and developed rapidly. Professional and technical personnel applied computer technology, information technology, and technologies of sound, light, electricity, fog, fire, laser, music, water curtain film and other disciplines to the fountain, and pushed the technical level of the fountain industry to a new level. At the level, it has opened up a vast application space, and the fountain industry has developed rapidly. In 2001, China Construction Metal Structure Association and Water Supply and Drainage Equipment Branch established the Waterscape Fountain Professional Committee. The industry organization provides services for the town, garden authorities, design institutes, professional manufacturers and companies to promote the healthy and orderly development of the fountain industry. . Some universities and secondary schools of architecture and gardening also offer waterscape and fountain courses, which provide a knowledge reserve for the future development of the fountain industry. The development of the fountain industry has entered a new phase.
Second, the application status of the fountain
The improvement of the landscaping function, entertainment function and environmental protection function of the fountain has opened up the application range of the fountain.
We can see: the square fountains suitable for festive festivals, large-scale mass gatherings and urban-themed sculpture fountains. Their water shapes are often simple, bright, solemn and generous, giving people the feeling of unity and progress and cohesion. The large-scale laser color music fountain in the commercial plaza, shopping center and swimming attractions, its dynamic “water show”, is a cheerful, jumping, lyrical, poetic “water dance”, some fountains are equipped with water curtain movies. Give people a variety of audio-visual effects. The high water column fountain with a water spray height of more than 100 meters on the natural water of the river and lake has its majestic and spectacular water shape, which is often one of the characteristics of this city or tourist attraction. The fountain has entered the residential area, and it is closely related to the architectural sketches and sculptures. It has the quiet and elegant style that middle and old people love, and also has fun forms for children to play with. Relaxed and comfortable atmosphere gives people a pleasant feeling. The fountains in the mall and in the restaurant are small and chic, which not only regulates the indoor microclimate, but also adds painting. Artificial waterfalls and overflow landscaping built on large buildings and natural terrain give people a feeling of freshness and charm.
The TV broadcast hall of the fountain and large songs and dances frequently appeared, and the well-tuned water shape played the effect of the performance. The ingenious miniature fountain enters the office and the living room, adding a dynamic touch to the interior. The fountain is a combination of art and technology. Architecture, garden art, art and even extension to humanities, literature and art, music and art can all be included in the design and creation of fountains. Many successful works pay attention to the design style of the fountain and the surrounding environment and the style of the building. Pay attention to local humanities and cultural psychology, so good design is crucial, it is the starting point for success. In the production of the fountain program, in just a few years, from the development of manual drawing to the photo shop picture and then to the dynamic water spray scheme of the three-dimensional animation production CD, computer technology has greatly enriched and opened up people’s thinking space. The advantages of fast, intuitive, easy to save, and easy to modify are quickly accepted by the builder and become an essential part of the bidding of the fountain design.
The special products and equipment of the fountain are constantly being updated. The adoption of new materials and new technologies, environmentally friendly products are safer and more reliable, and the after-sales service is thoughtful and timely. These provide technical support for the benign development of the fountain, making it large. Most of the fountains in the landscaping environment also play a good ecological effect, social benefits and advertising effects and other indirect economic benefits.
Third, the existing problems
In the process of wide application of fountains, some problems and deficiencies have also appeared. Some misunderstandings and bad tendencies should be brought to the attention of people. Otherwise it will have a negative impact on the healthy development of the fountain industry.
1. The blindness in the design of the program often leads to the failure of the work, making the work difficult to exist for a long time.
2. The unreasonable design of the detail directly affects the effect of the work.
3. The counterfeit products with high quality and low price directly affect the reputation of the relevant manufacturers and companies.
4. Energy conservation, water conservation, and environmental protection issues should be given due attention.
The blind performance in the design of the scheme is that it is separated from the local actual situation, seeking for the big, seeking the whole, seeking the high, and seeking the first. The result is that the fountain that is made is not in harmony with the environmental atmosphere, which often leads to large investment, high operating cost and poor effect. the result of. The design of a good plan requires the professional designers of the fountain to fully listen to and absorb the suggestions and opinions of the planners, architects, gardeners and construction units where the fountain is located, and to design a reasonable plan according to the time and place. The pool and water spray shape should form a harmonious relationship with the surrounding environment, space, architecture and greening. It is not suitable for a quiet and elegant atmosphere to be a warm and active effect. Take the laser color music fountain as an example. Foreign countries are generally located in parks or playgrounds and cultural parks of tourist attractions, and there are viewing seats so that people can stop and enjoy. And some of our cities are located in the small space, traffic flow, and do not have parking conditions next to the road or traffic around the island center, it is obvious that this choice is unscientific and unreasonable. It is easy to cause traffic jams. In addition, the ratio of water spray height to pool diameter, the sense of layering of various water shapes should be properly grasped, and the natural beauty and environmental beauty of heaven and man should be given to avoid the messy simple stacking. These should be reasonably resolved in the production of the program.
The water shape of the fountain is realized by the detailed design. The reasonable matching of the machine, pump, pipe, valve and nozzle directly affects the water spray effect. The design of some fountains only pays attention to the technical indicators such as flow rate and working pressure, neglecting the important factor of the flow state effect, and the water modeling effect is poor. For example, the success of the super-high water column is dense, the rupture section and the atomization section are short, the water column diameter and the water spray height ratio are appropriate, the wind resistance is strong, and the water spray effect is straight and majestic. At present, some ultra-high water columns, the water column is short, the rupture section and the atomization section are long. The diameter of the water column is thin and thin compared with the water spray height. The wind resistance is poor, and the water column is easily blown and scattered. This is the relevant parameter. The selection is unreasonable. There is also a similar problem in the combined effect of the overall water styling. Unreasonable detail design is a manifestation of poor technical and economic indicators and needs to be addressed during the design phase.
The quality of the fountain product affects the use of the fountain. In reality, it often encounters the same model, the same specifications, and the products of the same origin, the working parameters are different (exceeding the allowable error), the quality of some fake and inferior products is poor, the service life is short, and the maintenance workload and management cost of the use unit are increased. It also damages the reputation of the relevant manufacturers and companies. Accelerate the landscape project with energy-saving fountains. Some ultra-high water columns or large-scale laser color-controlled fountains consume thousands or thousands of kilowatts of power and light. That is to say, it takes thousands of kilowatt hours to open for two hours a day. Electricity is a great expense for project investment and future maintenance. It needs to be carefully demonstrated and evaluated. Under the premise of ensuring the design effect, energy should be saved as much as possible, which should be tailored in the design stage.
China is a country that lacks water. Water conservation is a basic national policy. Fountains should promote recycling water. When designing, we should consider reducing the atomization and drifting loss of water spray. The circulating water system should have a filter purification device. Now there are many dry fountains. It is easy to spray the soil and dirt on the ground into the underground water pool. The water quality is very easy to pollute, the pool water purification is done, the pool water use period is extended, and the used water is used. The pool water can water the surrounding lawns and green areas, saving water and environmental protection.
Fourth, the development trend of the domestic market
The demand of the market has promoted the development of the fountain industry. With the acceleration of rural urbanization in the coastal areas and the development of the western region, in addition to the existing development of large cities, the waterscapes and fountains of small and medium-sized cities will have larger Application space. In addition to the fountains of large public buildings, the fountains will enter more new residential communities, schools and enterprises. It is recommended that our professional fountain manufacturers and companies should adapt to the needs of the market, adapt themselves to new situations in a timely manner, learn the advanced design concepts of foreign counterparts and the stable and reliable strengths of product quality. The design should focus on quality awareness, continuous innovation, distinctive personality, avoid simple repetition, pay attention to the quality and service of products and works, further improve the scientific and technological content and technical and economic indicators of products and works, and do a good job in technical product reserves. The fountain industry will have a better application prospect in the future urban construction.
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